Effects of Aging on Canine Cognition

Effects of Aging on Canine Cognition


In observation of National Pet Month, Dr. Jessica Vogelsang takes an in-depth look at how canine cognition changes as dogs age, and provides tips to help keep them healthy for many future National Pet Month celebrations!

I can’t tell you how often I ask pet parents about their senior dog and the response is “okay, but … I guess he’s just getting old.” I love this conversation opener, because it tells me two things. One, the pet parent is paying enough attention to know something has changed, even if they don’t think it’s anything to be concerned about. Two, there’s probably something I can do to help!

All living things grow old. The aging process is complicated and messy, encompassing a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Some we can control, others we can slow down, and the remainder we just manage the best we can. The good news is, there’s almost always something we can do to make a companion animal feel better.

When we think about what it means to be old, most of us jump to the most obvious complaint of age … aches and pains. The body stiffens, the joints dry out, the discs in our spines shrivel up, and we end up shuffling around like Carl from the movie Up. Almost all senior dogs develop symptoms of osteoarthritis, which is one of the reasons I recommend joint supplements for seniors. If a pet parent says, “He won’t climb the stairs anymore,” or, “He doesn’t want to go for long walks,” then I know we’re likely dealing with pain.

But what about cognitive dysfunction, the age-related decline in neurologic function? Referred to as “canine cognitive dysfunction” in veterinary medicine, some laypeople call it “doggie Alzheimer’s”. While the symptoms can be similar to what humans experience, it’s not exactly the same thing.


Unfortunately, cognitive decline is quite common in senior dogs. More than half of all dogs over the age of 11 show at least one clinical sign. Since we don’t know for certain all the biological changes that occur in an aging brain, we describe canine cognitive dysfunction as a collection of symptoms:

  • Disorientation
  • Changes in activity level
  • Changes in sleep/wake cycle (e.g., wandering around in the middle of the night)
  • House-soiling
  • Anxiety
  • No longer adhering to an established routine

For many years, we simply accepted this condition as a price for living a long life. However, we’re learning that there are ways we can actually decelerate cognitive decline in dogs.

One way veterinarians manage cognitive dysfunction in dogs is through medications. Certain drugs that increase the amount of the neurotransmitter dopamine may improve brain function. In fact, the same drug used by dogs can also be used to treat Parkinson’s!


The other way we manage cognitive decline is through the nutrition and personal attention we provide our dogs. New and exciting research is showing that certain types of antioxidants and dietary ingredients can positively impact the brain function of senior pets! I love this because these are safe, easy changes we can use to improve the aging process for all our senior friends:

1. Feed a diet rich in antioxidants. Free radicals in the body accelerate the aging process. Antioxidants, such as those found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, can be added to a dog’s diet to limit the free-radical damage. Several studies have shown that seniors who eat a diet rich in antioxidants exhibit clinical improvement in cognitive function within just a few weeks.

2. Exercise the brain. Keep your pet’s neurons working through lots of daily playtime, walks, and puzzles. We joke that the brain is a muscle; it’s not, of course, but like a muscle it does benefit from regular workouts!

3. Fatty acids. We all know essential fatty acids are good for the skin and coat, but there’s also increasing evidence that a subset of fatty acids called medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) serve as a preferred energy source for the brain and can actually improve mental sharpness.

If your dog is getting a little grey around the muzzle, don’t accept “he’s just getting old” as a fact of life. Yes, we all age, but we can do it better by taking steps to preserve health and quality of life.

All my best to you and your lovable, aging dogs!

Dr V Dr. Jessica Vogelsang

Comments (8) -

  • Angela McKeever

    5/10/2017 2:11:22 PM |

    Great info!  One of my Dogs just turned 8 years and is getting alittle gray, I want to do the best I can for her now!  Thank youSmile

  • Ed Stroup

    5/17/2017 7:02:58 PM |

    Would choline be helpful for canine brain health. What about low dose lithium (aspartate or oratate) not the prescription high dose synthetic stuff for bipolar etc. Or recently I found a company who is hydrolyzing the actual jellyfish (not Prevogen which is synthetic). Any insight, comments and or dosages would be helpful.

  • Carol Martinez

    5/18/2017 12:35:50 AM |

    My girl Tula, large black labrador  chews on her feet, so one told me she has allergy s.  What can I do to ease her pain

  • Jeanne Matott

    5/18/2017 9:15:11 AM |

    Does the All life cycle dog food have the proper amount of antioxidants in the Ingredients?  What about MCTs?  If so what is the % required each day?
    Thank you

  • Susan

    5/18/2017 9:38:45 AM |

    So appropriate & im so grateful for that post. My boy Turq is 12, a silky terrier & only presented CCD this year. He stands still & stares into space. He has had IBS for several years. Any diet ideas? What kinds of fruit & veggies? Thank you

  • DMattox

    5/18/2017 10:00:52 AM |

    So sorry Tula is experiencing this issue! Poor girl. Yes, in fact, we recently published an article on this very topic!
    Hope this provides you with the information you need to help Tula!

  • DMattox

    5/24/2017 4:19:08 PM |

    Thanks for your interest in this topic. Dr. Jane had the following response ...

    Choline is a precursor for acetylcholine and phosphatidylchloine, which are substances that the brain and nerves require to operate. Lecithin has choline, which is it's a good addition to support healthy brain activity. Other ingredients that have choline are Ginko Biloba, coconut oil, fish oil and Tumeric. Additionally, magnesium and B vitamins are both helpful.

    There are many companies that make supplements solely for healthy cognitive activity. If you decide to try one of these, make sure that the supplement you select carries the NASC Seal, indicating that the supplement in question has met or exceeded quality control standards.

  • DMattox

    5/24/2017 4:31:09 PM |

    Hi Jeanne,
    Thanks so much for your interest in our All Life Stage Dog Food. Dr. Jane reviewed your question and asked me to pass along this message ...

    All of our kibbles feature significant amounts of quality antioxidants. Actually, while there is no standardized recommendation for intake, we believe antioxidants should come from different sources. For instance, our antioxidants are sources from from fruit and vegetables. I encourage you to check out each kibble's unique ingredient panel, all of which are included on our website. You'll find blueberries, pomegranate extract, beets, parsley, lettuce and spinach. All of these have antioxidant content.  Flaxseed alone contains many types of antioxidants. And unlike many other pet foot makers, we actually guarantee amounts of Vitamin E and Vitamin C!

    In answer to your second question, we do not include medium chained triglycerides in our foods.

    We hope you'll give our foods, treats and supplements a try! And thanks for being so interested in your dog's health needs!

    All the best,
    Dr. Jane

Add comment