Lifes Abundance content relating to 'canine wellness'

Protect Your Dog from Heat Exhaustion

keep-your-dog-safe-in-summer-heat

Every summer, our local parks department posts warning signs at the trailhead of my favorite hike warning of the dangers of overheating. Not for people. For their dogs.

The trail is five miles round trip, winding up a rocky mountain with little shade and no access to water. If you get into trouble out on the trail, you have to either be carried out or airlifted. Fortunately, most people heed warm weather warnings for themselves, bring enough water and have the appropriate hiking attire, all of which help make rescues a rare event. The same cannot be said for their dogs, unfortunately … hence the sign.

Dogs love us and want to go along with whatever we ask them to do. This leads to dangerous situations when well-meaning nature lovers, who just want to include their canines in summer activities, forget the very real risk of heat exhaustion and heat stroke in dogs.

Risk Factors

Heat exhaustion doesn’t come out of nowhere, making it a problem we can both anticipate and prevent. That’s a good thing! While any pet or person can experience this condition, there are specific risk factors that you need to be aware of that make some dogs more susceptible to heat than others:

Age: Both the very young and the very old are more affected by heat. Regulating body temperature is a complicated physiological process, and pets at both ends of the age spectrum have more difficulty fending off temperature extremes.

Breed: You can’t walk ten feet these days without encountering an adorable Frenchie or Boston Terrier, but hopefully those walks are taking place early in the morning (hint, hint). Any squishy-faced breed (referred to as brachycephalic) is more prone to heat stroke due to their anatomy.

Coat: When I first adopted my black lab Kekoa, I was shocked at how much more quickly she heated up during walks. Why? Dark-coated fur absorbs more heat. In addition, those beautiful thick coats that keep breeds like Huskies toasty in the snow can also predispose them to heat-related illness.

Weight: As if we needed another reason to warn against carrying extra pounds, obesity is a known risk factor for heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

All of these risk factors add up. Let’s just say, if you have a black-coated, overweight, senior French bulldog, you might as well just follow them around with a fan and a thermometer all summer (and get them on a diet!).

Early Warning Signs

Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are progressive illnesses. It takes time for a pet to go from normal body temperature to dangerously hot. During that process, he or she may exhibit any one of the following signs, meaning it’s time to stop what you’re doing and get into the shade.

Panting: Yes, dogs pant as part of the normal cooling process- but if they’re panting so much they can barely pause to take a sip of water, they’re too hot.

Drooling: Excessive drooling is a sign of heat exhaustion. Paradoxically, so are dry gums. A pet’s mouth should be moist but not dripping with saliva, nor should the gums be dry to the touch.

Red gums: Gums should be pink. Dark gums, which can look nearly red, can signal a problem.

check-your-dog-for-heat-stroke

Late-Stage Warning Signs

If your pet exhibits any of these during hot weather, I would proceed to a veterinarian immediately. Left unchecked, heat stroke can sadly lead to kidney failure or even death.

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Staggering gait
  • Seizures
  • Petechiae (pinpoint red spots on gums & mucous membranes)
  • Blood in stool or tarry, dark stool

What Should You Do if You Suspect Heat Exhaustion or Stroke?

If you’re not sure how severe your pet’s symptoms are, you can always call your local veterinary ER for advice. It’s better to be safe than sorry, especially with something as dangerous as heat stroke.

Avoid the temptation to douse your pet in cold water. It can actually worsen things by causing the peripheral blood vessels to constrict. You can spray your pet with cool (not cold) water while you proceed to the ER.

The best solution is, as always, prevention. Make sure pets have plenty of access to shade and cold drinking water when they’re outside during warm weather. Keep them indoors entirely during significant heat waves. Avoid walks during the middle of the day. If you’re going on a hike where help is not likely to be easily accessible if you run into trouble, over-prepare.

Have a fun, and SAFE, summer!

Dr V
Dr. Jessica Vogelsang, DVM

Why Consumers Trust Lifeʼs Abundance Pet Food

Lifes-Abundance-Cares-About-Your-Dogs-Health

NOTE: Life’s Abundance is not the subject of any FDA investigations or cases of DCM.

The FDA’s June 27 update linking 16 dog food brands to reports of the canine heart disease dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) has pet parents understandably concerned. Our hearts go out to affected families, and we’re happy to address your questions about our brand.

Our Purpose is You

At Life’s Abundance we are fueled by our passion for helping families, including pets, live longer, happier, healthier lives. You and your family are at the top of our minds as we develop products, select ingredients, choose suppliers and answer your questions.

If you already feed your companion Life’s Abundance food, thank you for placing your trust in us. If you or someone you know is considering making a switch, we hope you will choose Life’s Abundance.

Our way of thinking sets us apart, but it doesn’t end there.

  • Authenticity. We don’t buy into fads and marketing gimmicks. Our formulas are based on proven science and evolve only when research confirms that an adjustment will provide a nutritional benefit. In fact, because we are proactive in our approach, we were among the first to include guaranteed probiotics in our foods.
  • Guaranteed Taurine. We guarantee minimum amounts of taurine in all of our dry dog foods. Though this nutrient is not required by AAFCO, we have always seen it as an important and beneficial supplement in our dog foods.
  • Regular Testing. We regularly test all of our dry foods. Some tests are standard protocol and some go above and beyond standard requirements. For example, after a 2018 FDA report indicated there may be a link between DCM and taurine deficiency, we re-tested taurine levels in all of our dry dog food diets. Then, later that year we re-tested Vitamin D after a series of recalls due to an excess of this nutrient. In all cases, we remain vigilant about the safety of our products.
  • Proven Results. For two decades families like yours have trusted us to provide the best nutrition for their pets. Generations of dogs and cats have thrived on our products and thousands of pet parents have shared their experience through reviews we can be proud of.
  • Feeding Trials in Process. We recognize the importance of standardized, scientific testing and the value of Feeding Trials and we are underway with the process to trial all of our dry dog foods.
  • Quick Notification System. We are proud of the fact that we have never had a recall. But, what we are most thrilled with is our Quick Notification System. Unlike most brands, because we have a direct relationship with customers, in the event there is ever an issue with a product, we will be able to notify consumers immediately. Rather than waiting to hear about a problem in the news, from a friend, or never hearing about it all, Life’s Abundance will contact you directly by email, phone or even mail. That’s a level of service you simply can’t get anywhere else.

As a company and as pet parents ourselves, news of events like DCM makes us pause to acknowledge what it means to be based on a foundation of integrity, and to appreciate those families whose well being our products support.

Be assured, we are monitoring this investigation closely and will provide updates as they become available.

What Should I Feed My Senior Dog?

Aging Dog

A lot of folks don’t realize it, but as companion animals grow older, their nutritional needs often change. As their caretakers, we owe it to them to provide the best we can, based on their current nutritional requirements. The truth is, when it comes to senior dogs, appropriate, targeted nourishment can make a real difference in terms of longevity and long-term happiness. More...

Customer Bulletin: Excess Vitamin D Recall Expanded

sick-husky-vitamin-d-recall

NOTE: NO LIFE’S ABUNDANCE PET FOODS ARE INVOLVED IN THIS OR ANY RECALL.

Update as of January 31, 2019:

Hill’s Pet Nutrition voluntarily recalled select canned dog food products due to potentially elevated levels of vitamin D. Specifically, 14 different Hill's Prescription Diet and 11 Science Diet canned foods are involved. These recalled products were distributed to retail stores and veterinary clinics nationwide. This recall is the first to involve canned pet food. Click here for the current FDA information and recall list.

Original Article Posted on December 5, 2018:

The FDA has expanded its investigation of the presence of elevated levels of Vitamin D in dry dog foods, which can be toxic and cause serious health problems. Currently, there are eight brands and twelve different diets that have been recalled. After evaluating samples of several of these foods, the FDA found an alarming 70 times the intended amount of vitamin D. Although an essential nutrient for dogs, very high amounts of Vitamin D can cause serious health problems like kidney failure or death.

The FDA says signs of elevated vitamin D levels can include vomiting, loss of appetite, increased thirst, increased urination, excessive drooling and weight loss. Pet parents with dogs that have been eating the recalled brands and showing these symptoms should discontinue use, contact their veterinarian and can also report a suspected case to the FDA. Click here for the current FDA information and recall list.

Suspected Problem

In the pet food industry, it is common for manufacturers to make dog food diets for other companies. For example, Sunshine Mills makes Evolve, Triumph and Nature Farms, to name a few. It is also very common for these manufacturers to purchase generic vitamin and mineral mixes and use them in other brands. This could be the reason why we saw the Vitamin D recall start with just two brands and expand to eight brands ... and maybe even more.

Safer Solution

At Life's Abundance, we have a much better and safer way of making pet foods. For example, as it relates to this situation with Vitamin D, we do not use a generic vitamin and mineral mix in our pet diets. In other words, the mix we use is a proprietary formula that is made only for Life's Abundance and no other company. This exclusive vitamin and mineral mix goes beyond what AAFCO requires and is just one of the steps we take to make sure your pets are getting safe and nutritious foods.

We hope the information we shared with you will do two things. Alert unsuspecting dog food consumers of this situation so their dogs don’t get sick and also help you feel even more confident about Life's Abundance and our commitment to helping families, including our pets, live long, healthy lives!

Five Ways to Give Thanks to Pets

With half of November already over and done, the holiday season is practically upon us. At this time of year, our thoughts linger over how much we have to be thankful for, as well as everyone who fulfills an important role in our lives. For many of us, a special canine or feline friend makes our family complete!

Since partaking of turkey and all the trimmings is out of the question for most dogs and cats, we devoted some serious thought into novel approaches (that won't lead to gastric upset) pet parents can use to express their gratitude to companion animals. Just like with people, going the extra mile to show how much you appreciate everything they do to enrich your life can make all the difference!

Without any further ado, here’s our handy infographic outlining five simple ways you can show your dog or cat how grateful you are to have them in your life. To view or download the full-size PDF, simply click on the image below.

PDF DocumentPDF Document

What are some of the ways you use to show your companion animal how much you care? Be sure to share your thoughts and ideas in the comments section below!

About That New Puppy

Blonde-Lab

Few things in life are quite as joyous as finding a new puppy to bring home. First come the aww-inspiring introductions, the wobbly walk, the pure delight of a super-fast wagging tail … well, you get the picture. But before the intoxicating aroma of puppy breath has confused your mind, there are definitely some things you need to take care of first.

Before you pick up your new pup, follow these simple steps in the infographic below to ready your home and protect your new little one. Because once they’re home, you’re going to want to be spending all of your time playing and sharing adorable “first-time” pics and video online. Also, don’t forget, house training.

Be sure to check out our amazing Healthy Start Packs for Small & Medium-Size Puppies and for Large Breed Puppies. Everything you need to feed and care for your new doggo is included, from food to treats to supplemental nutrients to care products!

With just a bit of prep work, you and your newest family member can get down to the business of bonding and creating adorable memories.

From all of us here at Life’s Abundance, we send our heartfelt wishes for a long, healthy and happy relationship with your new canine companion!

New-Puppy-1New-Puppy-2

Celebrate National Pet Dental Health Month!

toothy-grin-dog

There is a reason why an entire month is dedicated to spreading awareness about the oral hygiene of our dogs and cats: it’s an easily remedied problem with potentially dire consequences. So, every February, we celebrate National Pet Dental Health Month in hopes that we’ll reach pet parents in a way that results in a change. According to the American Veterinary Dental College, 80% of dogs and 70% of cats will need dental care by age three. This is often due to genetics, neglect or poor diet. Sadly, tooth and gum problems in domesticated animals are nothing new. In fact, two Ancient Egyptian fossils of cats showed signs of tooth decay!

Does My Pet Need a Dentist?

According to the American Dental Association, almost 80% of adults brush their teeth daily. And on top of that, it is natural for us to schedule professional cleanings into our annual calendar. Why should the standard be any less for our precious companions?

There are several warning signs of an unhealthy mouth. Some are obvious and others, not so obvious. As a pet parent, it is important to investigate your pet's mouth on a regular basis and check for the following:

  • Breath: When your pup swoops in for a kiss, do you detect a foul odor? Unhealthy-smelling breath is a good indicator of the presence of unfriendly bacteria in your pet's mouth.
  • Teeth: Lift the lip and inspect the teeth. Are they healthy white or are they coated in a brown film? If it's the latter, it means your pet is long overdue for a cleaning.
  • Gums: Color should be medium pink, although some dogs and cats will have black or gray spots on the gums, which is normal for some breeds. If the gums are bright red and angry looking, that could indicate a serious problem.

If you detect any of these warning signs, your companion animal would greatly benefit from a veterinary dental screening. But why wait for warning signs? Why not be more proactive? The combination of routine home checks, regular veterinarian checks and a quality diet could go a long way towards ensuring your pet's lasting dental health.

happiness

Head Shape & Dental Health

Believe it or not, the shape of your pet's head (particularly the size of his or her muzzle) affects tooth alignment. And why is tooth alignment important for dental health? Well, perfectly aligned teeth naturally push food particles away from gums, while poorly aligned teeth can result in plaque buildups, possibly leading to an increased chance of infection.

While poor tooth alignment is typically a genetic issue, a pet's activities can also result in alignment problems. For example, tug-of-war games with towels or ropes played often over the course of years, can move teeth from their normal position. Therefore, you might want to limit such activities.

Try Something New This Month

We're incredibly pleased to announce that starting February 1st, Life’s Abundance will be celebrating National Pet Dental Health Month with exclusive savings on select products.

This is the perfect occasion to try something new and integrate it into your dog’s dental care regimen. Throughout the entire month, Gourmet Dental Treats for Adult Dogs, Buffalo Bully Sticks and Porky Puffs are available at their discounted Autoship prices ... up to 18% savings off retail!

There's never been a better time to provide your dog with yummy, nutritious treats that can actually help to maintain a healthy mouth.

Health Scares & Family Togetherness

Golden-sheen-2

It’s no secret amongst medical professionals that December is one of the toughest months for pet parents. No one really understands why, but both people and pets fall ill this time of year more frequently than at other times, making what should be a happy time of year one of the saddest. In my time working the veterinary ER, I got to see it firsthand, and it was always just heartbreaking.

We had our own scare last month. The week before Christmas, my beloved Golden Retriever became seriously ill. At 8, he’s old enough to be susceptible to a myriad of problems but young enough that despite his whitening muzzle I still think of him as an overgrown puppy with lots of time ahead of him. He collapsed on a Sunday morning. We headed straight to the ER.

Although Brody was stabilized on intensive care and had undergone myriad tests, they were unable to determine the cause of his symptoms and suggested we take him to a cardiologist as soon as possible. In between taking the kids to a holiday play and maintaining some semblance of normalcy, I shuttled him to the specialty center an hour away at midnight, hopeful for some sort of resolution or at least answers.

After three days of hospitalization and test after test, we were still without a diagnosis. Multiple specialists at the top of their fields came up empty. The “cancer” word was suggested multiple times. After all, this is a Golden Retriever we’re talking about. But despite our best efforts, every diagnostic evaluation came up short. We did what you always do when you don’t know what’s going on: treat the symptoms and hope for the best.

I brought Brody home with a pile of medications worthy of your Great Uncle Joe’s medicine cabinet while we regrouped to await test results. Biopsies, ultrasounds, blood tests, all normal. And despite all indications to the contrary, Brody started to slowly improve.

No one was more shocked than me. In all my years of practice, I can’t recall the last time I saw a dog as ill as mine bounce back. It was truly a Christmas miracle, and we couldn’t be more thrilled and grateful. I had fully planned to spend Christmas staring at his empty stocking in a puddle of tears, and here we were instead, cuddled on the couch like nothing had ever happened.

lap-of-luxury-doggo

I’m sharing this with you for a couple of reasons: first, as hard as it is for me to not know what happened, it’s a good reminder to all of us that medicine is an imperfect science. The people on his case are the smartest I know, and the fact that they couldn’t tell me what was wrong isn’t an indication that they were somehow lacking so much as the fact that sometimes there’s just nothing that can be found. I am so incredibly grateful to the medical professionals who spend the holidays away from their families so that we have somewhere to go when our pets are sick. Their care brought him back to me.

Second, this gives me a real impetus to actually follow through on a New Year’s Resolution for once. I always say I’m going to value my relationships more and spend more time with my loved ones, but this time there is an urgency to it that I’ve never had before. I was quite sure I was going to enter into the new year minus one fluffy lovebug, and yet here we are: I still get to wake up to his face on the side of the bed, roll my eyes in a not-really-mad kind of way at the amount of fur he sheds, and wrestle with him for space on the couch at night.

Every day with our loved ones is a gift, and nothing makes you appreciate that more than the prospect of no longer having it. I have no delusions that everything is back to normal; although we could find nothing wrong, something did go wrong with my dog, and it is very likely to come back. But since I have no control over it, for now I will just be grateful for the small things that fill a dog lover’s heart with joy: dog kisses, tail wags, and unabashed joy at something so simple as a short walk. There are no givens for the upcoming days or weeks.

No matter what happens tomorrow, our time together today is a blessing, so let’s make the most of it. From all the pet lovers here at Life’s Abundance (that’s pretty much everyone), wishing you and yours all the best for 2018!

Dr V
Dr. Jessica Vogelsang, DVM

The Future of Veterinary Medicine

orange-tabby-outdoors

Our lives have been immeasurably changed since the dawn of the computer age. It’s hard to overstate the impact of technology on the future of medicine: it’s changed virtually everything. Much of it is already working its way into your veterinary office. So, what does the veterinary clinic of the future look like? Here are my predictions:

1. You’ll Be Taking Advantage of Telemedicine Options

Fifteen years ago, if your vet wanted a radiologist’s opinion on an x-ray, she would have to pack the film into an envelope and send it off. Nowadays, with digital x-rays, an expert opinion is just a click away.

Right now, telemedicine is mostly used as a means for one veterinarian to consult with another one. Having a remote veterinarian examine and diagnose your pet without seeing him or her in person is currently against the law in most states. Expect veterinary medicine to follow the trends in human medicine; I can talk to a doctor I’ve never met before over the phone about my child’s ear infection and get a prescription, so it’s only a matter of time before consumer demand will make veterinary telemedicine more accessible. It won’t happen until state regulatory boards make it legal, though, so don’t expect this to happen anytime soon.

The intermediate step you will probably notice first is either remote consultations with a veterinarian you already have a relationship, or a third-party triage service that can provide general advice without providing a diagnosis or treatment recommendation. Both of those options are legal under today’s laws. Once that becomes the norm, the rest will follow suit pretty quickly.

2. Health Monitoring Technology Will Grow

Each night, my husband and my son sit down to compare notes from the little fitness trackers they wear on their wrists and see who got the most steps in for the day. In the morning, my husband can tell me exactly when he was in REM sleep and how often he woke up. These devices even sync with our scales. The amount of data is almost overwhelming!

Over the past five years, multiple fitness trackers for dogs have come and gone. Most are still too large to fit on a cat’s collar due to the limitations of the battery size, but we’ll get there soon. Some of them just track steps for the day, but the latest versions can look at data such as breathing rate and whether or not a dog is scratching excessively. That’s good data to have if you are concerned your pet is in pain or wondering if those new allergy meds are helping!

In veterinary medicine, these fitness trackers are just the start. For those who live with diabetic cats, a litter box is in the works that can track glucose in the urine, a vital marker for diabetes. Imagine if that same litter box also could tell you when your cat loses a pound, which is a substantial health concern but often subtle enough that owners don’t notice right away. Expect these technologies to help us catch disease processes sooner rather than later, which will undoubtedly save lives!

chocolate-lab

3. We’ll Be Using DNA Analysis to Predict Health

Ever swabbed your cheek and sent it off for a DNA analysis to learn about your ancestors? That’s only the beginning. Genetic testing to see what dog breeds make up your dog’s DNA has already expanded into an enormous database that helps improve our understanding of canine disease. Mapping of the dog genome already allows us to pick up early markers for many genetic diseases such as the MDR1 gene, degenerative myelopathy and Von Willebrand’s disease. Our ability to anticipate these disease processes before they develop will allow us to provide much more meaningful care and prevention.

Having such specific health information about individual companion animals will allow us to make completely individualized treatment plans!

4. We’ll Be Using Bioengineered Solutions to Treat Disease

Stem cells are a huge buzzword these days … but do the results really backup the hype? According to many veterinarians who use them to treat dogs, cats and horses, the answer is “yes!”

Stem cells are unique in that they can differentiate into different cell types, which makes them particularly useful in orthopedic disease where regeneration is a challenge. Stem cells can be harvested from a dog or cat’s own adipose tissue, grown at the lab, and returned to the veterinarian to be introduced to the site of an injury. A 2008 study in Veterinary Therapeutics showed a significant improvement using stem cells in dogs with elbow injuries, a notoriously difficult joint to treat.

Another area of research that makes this vet excited is immunotherapy: a cancer treatment that helps the pet’s own immune system recognize cancer cells as abnormal. Scientists are currently investigating the ability to create immunotherapy treatments for tricky cancers such as mast cell tumors, melanoma and osteosarcoma. Imagine a future where an injectable vaccine reduces the need for more invasive treatments such as chemotherapy, surgery and radiation!

Technology is both a blessing and a burden. I admit I sometimes long for the days when I wasn’t accessible 24 hours a day, and have to chase my kids outdoors and off their mobile devices. That being said, I am also so very excited to see how these amazing new developments will improve life for both pets and people!

Are pet health monitoring devices something would consider using? Leave your thoughts in the comments section below.

Dr V
Dr. Jessica Vogelsang, DVM

5 Reasons Why Dogs are the Absolute Best

corgi-walk

August 26th marks National Dog Day, giving us ample opportunity to celebrate everything we love about dogs. To honor this special day, Dr. V shares her personal observations and some truly amazing facts about why Americans love dogs so much.

It is perhaps fate that I was destined to consider myself a dog person … after all, my birthday falls on August 26th, National Dog Day. From the first time I held my floofy little Lhasa Apso puppy in my arms when I was seven years old, I knew that I felt a special camaraderie with canines. Often, I felt more comfortable with them than I did with people. I thought I was a weirdo for feeling that way, until I met other dog people and realized it’s just who we are.

Dogs have always made me stop in my tracks the way my friends stopped for babies. Don’t get me wrong, I love children. But I’ve never felt compelled to stop a stranger and ask to pick up their baby the way I have pretty much every puppy ever. I look at them and see patterns: the way their coat so often matches their caretaker’s hairstyle; the easy way a dog will run up and comfort someone without a word being said; the sudden brightening in children's faces when they first see their dog after a day at school. The easy bond between people and pups has been thousands of years in the making.

Everyone has their own personal reasons for wanting to share life with a canine companion. That being said, dog lovers share some common reasons for why they enjoy life more when there's a dog around. Here are the most frequently cited explanations for being an enthusiastic supporter of Team Dog …

1. Family. Dog lovers often share that their dog feels like a member of the family, as opposed to a roommate who just hangs out, eats a lot, and makes a mess. This deep bond explains why many people say that the death of a dog is just as hard emotionally as losing any other family member.

pet-parents

2. Personality. With 190 recognized dog breeds and countless lovable mixes, dog personalities are as varied and unique as we are. People often spend a great deal of time researching, visiting breeders and shelters, and getting to know different dogs before finding the one whose temperament, activity level, and size are the exact right fit for them.

3. Loyalty. A dog’s loyalty to his or her family is unmatched. As pack animals, they truly depend on us for all the necessities of life plus lots of love and interaction. In return, we are rewarded with boundless love and a friend who doesn’t care about morning breath, what we look like before our first cup of coffee, or what we sound like when we sing in the shower.

4. Understanding. Many of us intuitively sense that our dogs understand us, but does the science back it up? Researchers in Brazil and the U.K. studied a group of dogs and determined that dogs could correlate the tone of our voices with the expressions on our faces.* Up until this study, that particular cognitive ability was thought to only be found in primates! Turns out that dogs often have a better read on us than we do on one another!

beach-dog

5. Forgiveness. A friend recently recalled an incident when she had accidentally closed a door on her dog’s tail, whereupon she burst into tears. Seeing this, her dog immediately ran over to comfort her! His concern was not over his own well-being, but over his guardian’s distress. While dogs exhibit so many wonderful traits we value in each other, they seem to be missing some of the really ugly ones we humans sometimes suffer: greed, malice and holding a grudge (to name a few). They live in the moment, and never seem to hold our failings against us. So amazing!

When I speak about the most profound moments I’ve shared with my dogs, I often get choked up. Like even right now. Even in our worst moments, they provide the comfort of a loving presence that’s continually by our sides, without judgment. All they ask in return is a warm bed, nourishment and loving scritches. I think members of Team Dog will agree, that’s a small price to pay for one of the most joyful relationships a person can have!

Why are you a dog person? Share your reasons why in the comments section below.

Dr V
Dr. Jessica Vogelsang, DVM

Reference:

 * www.reuters.com/article/us-dogs-emotions-idUSKCN0VP1DH